Dr. Sarrel is quite mistaken in his words. Estrogen-alone therapy DOES pose significant health risks, including a higher risk of stroke, blood clots, dementia, peripheral arterial disease (mostly aortic aneurysm), and gallbladder disease. The "timing hypothesis" for heart disease prevention is wishful thinking and disproved by the recent KEEPS trial. The reduced risk of breast cancer seen in WHI estrogen-alone is explained in either one of two ways: 1. an estrogen "binge" effect from Premarin in hysterectomized women 2. Premarin itself acts more like tamoxifen in human females because conjugated equine estrogens may in fact block the more potent endogenous 17-beta estradiol.